Bane got a bad lot in life right from the beginning and wound up serving time in one of the worst prisons in the world for the sins of his father. As a child. Taking advantage of the den of sin and villainy he found himself in, Bane learned all he could from his fellow inmates, developing his mind along with the huge physique he also cultivated. Soon enough he became top dog in the prison, but that drew the attention of officials who wanted to test a new muscle-enhancing drug on him called Venom which injected itself through a series of tubes in the subject’s back and arms.
Later Bane broke out of prison and decided to become the first person to break Batman in a story called Knightfall. Figuring he couldn’t take on the world’s greatest detective in a straight fight, Bane destroyed Arkham, freeing many of Batman’s enemies. After doing his best to round everyone up, the exhausted Batman returned home where Bane lied in wait. The two tussled and Bane wound up breaking the hero’s back over his knee WWE-style.
While injured, Wayne passed the mantle of the Bat to a guy named Jean-Paul Valley who went by the monicker Azrael before becoming Batman. Valley was a bit of a nut who built himself the now infamous AzBat suit which he used to beat the ever loving crap out of Bane, slicing Bane’s Venom supply and leaving him badly beaten but alive.
After kicking his Venom habit in Blackgate prison, Bane popped up sporadically in his own one-shots and alongside Batman in his own books. He and Batman teamed up to take down a ring of drug dealers peddling a variation of Venom. He later returned to Santa Prisca to get more information about his patronage and found out he could be one of four people, which Bane began investigating. While on these travels he wound up catching Ra’s al Ghul’s attention and Ra’s deemed him good enough to take Batman’s spot as his heir. This lead to the eventual first ever showdown between Batman and Bane which Batman won.
Bane popped up in Gotham a few years later convinced that Batman’s dad Thomas Wayne was his father. The two teamed up to fight in the streets of Gotham while waiting for the DNA test results to let them know what the deal was. Turns out they’re not a match, but soon enough Bane discovers that his real father wasn’t a revolutionary at all, but the villain King Snake. The two don’t see eye to eye—and not just because King is blind—and Bane winds up siding with Batman instead of his pops.
During Infinite Crisis and One Year Later writers didn’t seem to know whether they wanted Bane to be a good guy or a bad guy, on Venom or not. He broke Judomaster’s back in IC which would later draw the attention of Judomaster’s son who was a member of Checkmate. He even joined the new version of Suicide Squad which rounded up villains and sent them to another planet only to get sent there himself in the pages of Salvation Run. You can pretty much ignore most of those appearances and just jump to Secret Six, where he’s been kicking ass and playing the role of protector for Scandal Savage which has recently put them at odds.
The character’s infamy as the one villain who actually beat Batman has translated from comic book appearances to ones in other media including a completely ridiculous one in Batman & Robin where he’s reduced to a meathead enforcer. Better interpretations have been seen in the classic Batman: The Animated Series, The Batman and Batman:Brave and the Bold and video games like Lego Batman and Batman: Arkham Asylum.