King Zhou (Chinese: 紂王; pinyin: Zhòu Wáng) was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin (Chinese: 帝辛; pinyin: Dì Xīn) or Emperor Xin, the last king of the Shang Dynasty of ancient China. He is also called Zhou Xin (紂辛; Zhòu Xīn). He may also be referred to by adding "Shang" (商 Shāng) in front of any of his names. In Chinese, 紂 also refers to a horse crupper, the part of a saddle or harness most likely to be soiled by the horse.
1 Early reign,
2 Late reign,
4 Mentions in literature and legend,
In the Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian wrote that Di Xin, in the early part of his reign, had abilities which surpassed those of the ordinary man, was quick-witted and quick-tempered. In legend, he was intelligent enough to win all of his arguments, and he was strong enough to hunt wild beasts with his bare hands. He was the younger brother of Wei Zi and Wei Zhong and father of Wu Geng. His father Di Yi had two brothers, Ji Zi and Bi Gan. Di Xin added to the territory of Shang by battling the tribes surrounding it, including the Dongyi to the east.
In his later years, Di Xin was given over to drinking, women, sex and a lack of morals, preferring these to the proper governance of the country, and ignored almost all affairs of state. According to Sima Qian, he even hosted festive orgies where many people engage in sex at the same time with his concubines and created songs with crude (erotic) lyrics and poor rhythm. In legends, he is depicted as having come under the influence of his wicked wife Daji, and committing all manner of evil and cruel deeds with her. In fictionalizations, including the novel Fengshen Yanyi, she was said to be possessed by a malevolent fox spirit.
One of the most famous forms of entertainment Zhou enjoyed was the "Wine Pool and Meat Forest" (酒池肉林). A large pool, big enough for several canoes, was constructed on the Palace grounds, with inner linings of polished oval shaped stones from the sea shores. This allowed for the entire pool to be filled with alcohol. A small island was constructed in the middle of the pool, where trees were planted, which had branches made of roasted meat skewers hanging over the pool. This allowed Zhou and his friends and concubines to drift on canoes in the pool. When they thirst, they reached down into the pool with their hands and drank the wine. When they hungered, they reached up with their hands to eat the roasted meat. This was considered one of the most famous examples of decadence and corruption of a ruler in Chinese history.
In order to please Daji, he created the "Cannon Burning Punishment" (炮烙之刑). One large hollow bronze cylinder was stuffed with burning charcoal and allowed to burn until red-hot, then prisoners were made to literally hug the cylinder, which resulted in a painful and unsightly death.
Zhou and Daji were known to get highly aroused after watching such victims. Victims ranged from civilians and prisoners to high government officials, including Mei Bo.
In order to fund Zhou's heavy expenses each day, extremely heavy taxes were implemented. The civilians suffered greatly, and lost all hope for the Shang Dynasty. Zhou's brother Wei Zi tried to persuade him to change, but was rebuked. His uncle Bi Gan similarly remonstrated with him, but Di Xin had his heart ripped out so he could see what the heart of a sage looked like. When his other uncle Ji Zi heard this, he went to remonstrate with the kingly nephew and, feigning madness, was imprisoned.
When Zhou Dynasty's army, led by the famous Jiang Ziya, defeated the Shang Dynasty at the Battle of Muye in 1046 BC, Di Xin gathered all his treasures around himself in the Palace, and then set fire to his palace and committed suicide.
The name "Zhou" actually appeared after the death of King Zhou, a posthumous name (although perhaps used furtively by his contemporaries). This name was a representation of his actions of both dishonor and cold-heartedness. King Zhou would go down in history as the worst example of a corrupted king in China.
Mentions in literature and legend:
Zhou is mentioned in the Confucian Analects (zizhang); and, also, in the Three Character Classic. Zhou is also one of the main subjects of Fengshen Yanyi, as mentioned above, together with representation in various derived popular media. Thus, Di Xin, also known as Zhou, has served as a (negative) exemplar of Confucian principles (presented as the bad ruler who justifies regime change according to the Mandate of Heaven), as well as becoming an icon of popular culture. This makes for a biographically interesting figure, but one challenging a clear distinction between history, legend, and philosophical point-making.
In Fengshen Yanyi, Zhou visits Goddess Nüwa's temple and offends the Goddess with his lustrous comments on her beauty. Being offended, Nüwa decides that Shang dynasty should end and sends her three subordinates to become three beautiful women (including Daji) to bewitch Zhou. Under the influence of these women, Zhou becomes a ruthless king, loses the support of people and makes his downfall.
^ Wu, 220.,
^ Wu, 220-221, referencing Sima Qian's Yin Benji chapter (史记 · 辛本纪).,
^ Lüshi Chunqiu (吕氏春秋·仲冬纪第十一),
^ See, for example, Qu Yuan, Tian Wen (天问). "梅伯受醢".,
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