Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough /ˈætənbərə/, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is a British actor, film director, producer and entrepreneur. He is the President of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA).
As a film director and producer, he won two Academy Awards for Gandhi in 1983. He has also won four BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. As an actor he is perhaps best known for his roles in Brighton Rock, The Great Escape, 10 Rillington Place, Miracle on 34th Street and Jurassic Park.
He is the older brother of Sir David Attenborough, the naturalist and broadcaster, and John Attenborough, who was an executive at Alfa Romeo before his death in 2012.
Attenborough was born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, the eldest of three sons of Mary Attenborough (née Clegg) a founding member of the Marriage Guidance Council and Frederick Levi Attenborough, a scholar and academic administrator who was a don at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and wrote a standard text on Anglo-Saxon law. Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and studied at RADA.
In September 1939, the Attenboroughs took in two German-Jewish refugee girls, Helga and Irene Bejach (aged 9 and 11), who lived with them in College House and were adopted by the family after the war when it was discovered that their parents had been killed. They moved to America in the 1950s and lived with an uncle, where they married and took American citizenship. They are both now deceased.
During the Second World War, Attenborough served in the Royal Air Force. After initial pilot training he was seconded to the newly formed RAF Film Unit at Pinewood Studios, under the command of Flight Lieutenant John Boulting (whose brother Peter Cotes would later direct Attenborough in the play The Mousetrap) where he appeared with Edward G. Robinson in the propaganda film Journey Together (1943). He then volunteered to fly with the Film Unit and after further training, where he sustained permanent ear-damage, qualified as a sergeant, flying on several missions over Europe filming from the rear gunner's position to record the outcome of Bomber Command sorties.
Attenborough's acting career started on stage and he appeared in shows at Leicester's Little Theatre, Dover Street, prior to his going to RADA, where he is still Patron. Attenborough's film career began in 1942 in an uncredited role as a deserting sailor in the Noël Coward/David Lean production In Which We Serve (his name and character were accidentally omitted from the original release-print credits), a role which would help to type-cast him for many years as spivs or cowards in films like London Belongs to Me (1948), Morning Departure (1950) and his breakthrough role as Pinkie Brown in John Boulting's film adaptation of Graham Greene's novel Brighton Rock (1947), a part that he had previously played to great acclaim at the Garrick Theatre in 1942.
In 1949 exhibitors voted him the sixth most popular British actor at the box office.
Early in his stage career, Attenborough starred in the West End production of Agatha Christie's The Mousetrap, which went on to become the world's longest running stage production. Both he and his wife were among the original cast members of the production, which opened in 1952 at the Ambassadors Theatre and as of 2012 is still running at the St Martins Theatre. They took a 10% profit-participation in the production, which was paid for out of their combined weekly salary ("It proved to be the wisest business decision I've ever made... but foolishly I sold some of my share to open a short-lived Mayfair restaurant called 'The Little Elephant' and later still, disposed of the remainder in order to keep Gandhi afloat.")
Attenborough worked prolifically in British films for the next 30 years, including in the 1950s, appearing in several successful comedies for John and Roy Boulting, such as Private's Progress (1956) and I'm All Right Jack (1959).
In 1963, he appeared in the ensemble cast of The Great Escape as RAF Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett ("Big X"), the head of the escape committee and based on the real-life exploits of Roger Bushell. It was his first appearance in a major Hollywood film blockbuster and his most successful film up to that time. During the 1960s, he expanded his range of character roles in films such as Séance on a Wet Afternoon (1964) and Guns at Batasi (1964), for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of the Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM). In 1965 he played Lew Moran opposite James Stewart in The Flight of the Phoenix and in 1967 and 1968, he won back-to-back Golden Globe Awards in the category of Best Supporting Actor, the first time for The Sand Pebbles, again co-starring Steve McQueen and the second time for Doctor Dolittle starring Rex Harrison.
His portrayal of the serial killer John Christie in 10 Rillington Place (1971) garnered excellent reviews. In 1977 he played the ruthless General Outram, again to great acclaim, in the Indian director Satyajit Ray's period piece The Chess Players.
He took no acting roles following his appearance in Otto Preminger's version of The Human Factor (1979) until his appearance as the eccentric developer John Hammond in Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park (1993) and the film's sequel, The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997). He starred in the remake of Miracle on 34th Street (1994) as Kris Kringle. Since then he has made occasional appearances in supporting roles, including as Sir William Cecil in the historical drama Elizabeth (1998), Jacob in Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and as "The Narrator" in the film adaptation of Spike Milligan's comedy book Puckoon (2002).
He made his only appearance in a film adaptation of Shakespeare when he played the British ambassador who announces that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead at the end of Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet (1996).
Producer and director:
In the late 1950s, Attenborough formed a production company, Beaver Films, with Bryan Forbes and began to build a profile as a producer on projects including The League of Gentlemen (1959), The Angry Silence (1960) and Whistle Down the Wind (1961), also appearing in the first two of these as an actor.
His feature film directorial debut was the all-star screen version of the hit musical Oh! What a Lovely War (1969) and his acting appearances became sporadic as he concentrated more on directing and producing. He later directed two epic period films: Young Winston (1972), based on the early life of Winston Churchill and A Bridge Too Far (1977), an all-star account of Operation Market Garden in World War II. He won the 1982 Academy Award for Best Director and as the film's producer, the Academy Award for Best Picture for his historical epic, Gandhi and another Golden Globe, this time as Best Director, for the same film in 1983, a project he had been attempting to get made for 18 years. Attenborough also directed the screen version of the musical A Chorus Line (1985) and the anti-apartheid drama Cry Freedom (1987), based on the life and death of the prominent anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko and the experiences of Donald Woods. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Director for both films.
His most recent films as director and producer include Chaplin (1992) starring Robert Downey, Jr., as Charlie Chaplin and Shadowlands (1993), based on the relationship between C. S. Lewis and Joy Gresham, (the star of the latter was Anthony Hopkins, who had appeared in four previous films for Attenborough: Young Winston, A Bridge Too Far, Magic and Chaplin) and between 2006 and 2007 Attenborough spent time in Belfast, Northern Ireland, working on his last film as director and producer, Closing the Ring, a love story set in Belfast during the Second World War and starring Shirley MacLaine, Christopher Plummer and Pete Postlethwaite.
After 33 years of dedicated service as President of the Muscular Dystrophy campaign, Attenborough became the charity's Honorary Life President in 2004. In 2012 the charity, which leads the fight against muscle-wasting conditions in the UK, established the Richard Attenborough Fellowship Fund to honour his lifelong commitment to the charity, and to ensure the future of clinical research and training at leading UK neuromuscular centres.
Attenborough is also the patron of the United World Colleges movement, whereby he contributed to the colleges that are part of the organisation. He was a frequent visitor to the United World College of Southern Africa (UWCSA) Waterford Kamhlaba. With his wife, they founded the Richard and Sheila Attenborough Visual Arts Centre. He also founded the Jane Holland Creative Centre for Learning at Waterford Kamhlaba in Swaziland in memory of his daughter who died in the tsunami on 26 December 2004.
He is a longtime advocate of education that does not judge upon color, race, creed or religion. His attachment to Waterford is his passion for non-racial education, which were the grounds on which Waterford Kamhlaba was founded. Waterford was one of his inspirations for directing the film Cry Freedom, based on the life of Steve Biko.
He was elected to the post of Chancellor of the University of Sussex on 20 March 1998, replacing The Duke of Richmond and Gordon. He stood down as Chancellor of the university following Graduation in July 2008. There now hangs a 42 inch by 46 inch portrait of him in the university's library.
A lifelong supporter of Chelsea Football Club, Attenborough served as a director of the club from 1969-1982 and between 1993 and 2008 held the honorary position of Life Vice President. On 30 November 2008 he was honoured with the title of Life President at the club's stadium, Stamford Bridge.
He was also head of the consortium Dragon International Film Studios, which was constructing a film and television studio complex in Llanilid, Wales, nicknamed "Valleywood". However in March 2008 the project was placed into administration with debts of £15m and the site is believed to be being considered for breaking-up with a sale of the assets.
Attenborough's father was the principal of University College, Leicester, now the city's university. This has resulted in a long association with the university, with Attenborough becoming a patron. The university's Embrace Arts at the RA centre, which opened in 1997 is named in his honour. He has two younger brothers: naturalist and broadcaster David; and John (died 2012), who had made a career in the motor trade.
Attenborough has been married to the English actress Sheila Sim since 1945. From 1949 until October 2012, they lived in Beaver Lodge on Richmond Green in London. The house was sold in October 2012 for £11.5 million, owing to the couple's deteriorating health.
On 26 December 2004, the couple's elder daughter, 49-year-old Jane Holland, as well as her mother-in-law, also named Jane and Attenborough's 15-year-old granddaughter Lucy, were killed when a tsunami caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake struck Khao Lak, Thailand where they were on holiday. A service was held on 8 March 2005 and Attenborough read a lesson at the national memorial service on 11 May 2005. His grandson Samuel Holland, who survived the tsunami uninjured, and granddaughter Alice Holland, who suffered severe leg injuries, also read in the service. A commemorative plaque was placed in the floor of St. Mary Magdalen's parish church in Richmond. Attenborough later described the Boxing Day of 2004 as "the worst day of my life". Attenborough has two other children, Michael and Charlotte. Michael is a theatre director and the Artistic director of the Almeida Theatre in London and is married to actress Karen Lewis; they have two sons. Charlotte is an actress, and has three children.
Attenborough collected Picasso ceramics from the 1950s. More than 100 items went on display at the New Walk Museum and Art Gallery in Leicester in 2007, in an exhibition dedicated to family members lost in the tsunami.
In 2008 he published, in association with his long-standing friend and colleague Diana Hawkins, an informal autobiography entitled Entirely Up to You, Darling.
In August 2008 Attenborough entered hospital with heart problems and was fitted with a pacemaker. In December 2008 he suffered a fall at his home after a stroke, and was admitted to St George's Hospital in Tooting, southwest London. He went into a coma, but came out of it within a few days.
In November 2009 Attenborough, in what he called a 'house clearance' sale, sold part of his extensive art collection which included works by LS Lowry, Christopher Nevinson and Graham Sutherland, generating £4.6 million at Sotheby's. In January 2011 he sold his Rhubodach estate on the Isle of Bute, in Argyll, Scotland for £1.48 million.
In May 2011, David Attenborough revealed that his brother had been confined to a wheelchair since his stroke in 2008, but was still capable of holding a conversation. He added, however, that "he won't be making any more films."
In June 2012, shortly before her 90th birthday, Sheila Sim entered the actors' home Denville Hall, for which she and Attenborough had helped raise funds. In July 2012 it was announced that Sim has been diagnosed with senile dementia.
In October 2012, it was announced that Attenborough was putting the family home, Beaver Lodge, which comes complete with a sound-proofed cinema in the garden, on the market for £11.5 million. David Attenborough stated "He and his wife both loved the house, but they now need full-time care. It simply isn't practical to keep the house on any more." In March 2013, in light of his deteriorating health, Attenborough moved into a nursing home in London to be with his wife, as confirmed by their son Michael.
He was the subject of This Is Your Life in December 1962 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the Savoy Hotel, during a dinner held to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Agatha Christie play The Mousetrap, in which he had been an original cast member.
In 1967, he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). He was made a Knight Bachelor in 1976 and in 1993 he was made a life peer as Baron Attenborough, of Richmond upon Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Although the appointment by John Major was 'non-political' (it was granted for services to the cinema) and he would have been a crossbencher, Attenborough chose to accept the Labour whip and so sits on the Labour benches. In 1992 he had been offered a Peerage by Neil Kinnock, then head of the Labour Party, but refused it as he felt unable to commit to the time necessary "to do what was required of him in the Upper Chamber, as he always put film-making first".
In 1983, Attenborough was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolence Peace Prize by the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change.
In 1992 he was awarded the Shakespeare Prize for his life's work by the Alfred Toepfer Foundation in Hamburg.
On 13 July 2006, Attenborough, along with his brother David, were awarded the titles of Distinguished Honorary Fellows of the University of Leicester "in recognition of a record of continuing distinguished service to the university".
On 20 November 2008, Attenborough was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Drama from the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (RSAMD) in Glasgow.
Attenborough is also an Honorary Fellow of Bangor University for his contributions to film making.
Pinewood Studios paid tribute to his body of work by naming a purpose-built film and television stage after him. The Richard Attenborough Stage has an area of 30,000 sq ft. In his absence because of illness, Lord Puttnam and Pinewood Chairman Lord Grade officially unveiled the stage on 23 April 2012.
The Actors Charitable Trust. Chairman 1956-88, President 1988-,
Equity. Council Member 1949-73,
Royal Theatrical Fund Board of Directors. Vice President 1985-,
Muscular Dystrophy Campaign. Vice President 1962-71, President 1971-2004, Life President 2004-,
Cinema and Television Benevolent Fund. Council Member 1962-2003, Vice Patron 2003-,
King George V Fund for Actors. Committee Member 1962-73, Trustee 1973-,
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA). Member of Council 1963-73, Chairman 1973-2003, President 2003-,
Combined Theatrical Charities Appeals Council. Chairman 1964-88, President 1988-,
Royal Society of Arts. Life Fellow 1965,
Chelsea Football Club. Vice President 1966, Director 1969-82, Life Vice President 1993-2008, Life President 2008-,
Cinematograph Films Council Member 1967-73,
Gardner Centre for the Arts, University of Sussex. Patron 1969-90, President 1990-,
National Film and Television School. Governor 1970-81, President 1977-,
University of Sussex. Pro Chancellor 1970-98, Chancellor 1998-2008,
BAFTA. Vice President 1971-94, Chairman of David Lean BAFTA Foundation Trustees 1972-2002, President 2002-,
Capital Radio. Chairman 1972-92, Life President 1992-,
The Little Theatre, Leicester. Patron 1973-92, Honorary Life President 1992-,
The Young Vic Theatre Company. Director 1974-84,
"Help a London Child". Founder & Life Patron 1998-,
Tate Gallery. Trustee 1976-82 & 1994-96,
Waterford Kamhlaba School, Swaziland. Chairman UK Trustees 1976-2004, Member Governing Council 1987-, President 2004-,
Duke of York's Theatre. Chairman 1979-92,
Channel Four Television Corporation. Deputy Chairman 1980-86, Chairman 1986-92,
Board of Governors of the British Film Institute. Chairman 1981-92,
Goldcrest Films & Television. Chairman 1982-87,
Kingsley Hall Community Centre. (Mahatma Gandhi lodged there in 1931) Patron 1982-,
Committee of Enquiry into the Arts and Disabled People: Reporting on access and inclusion. Chairman 1983-85,
The Gandhi Foundation. President 1983-,
Brighton Festival. President 1984-85,
British Film Year. President 1984-86,
British Screen Advisory Council. Chairman 1987-96, Honorary President 1996-,
UNICEF. Goodwill Ambassador 1987-,
European Script Fund. Chairman 1988-96, Honorary President 1996-,
Orange Tree Theatre, Richmond, London. Patron (with Lady Attenborough) 1988-,
Arts For Health. President 1989-,
European Film Academy. Co-founder (with Ingmar Bergman, Federico Fellini and Claude Chabrol) 1989,
Richard Attenborough Centre for Disability and the Arts, University of Leicester. Patron 1990-,
Foundation for Sport and the Arts. Trustee 1991-2003, President 2003-,
Chicken Shed Theatre Company. Honorary Patron 1992-,
One World Action. Patron 1992-,
Satyajit Ray Foundation. Patron 1995-,
Oxford University, Cameron Mackintosh Visiting Professor of Contemporary Theatre. 1996,
Sussex Centre for German-Jewish Studies. Patron 1996-,
United World Colleges. Member of the International Board 1996-2000, International Patron 2000-,
Amnesty International. Patron 1997-,
Mousetrap Theatre Projects. Trustee 1997-,
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. Trustee 1998,
UK Film Council. Government Advisor 1999-,
Sir John Gielgud Charitable Trust. Trustee 2001-,
Themba HIV/AIDS Project in South Africa. Patron 2002-,
Unicorn Theatre. Patron 2002-,
Mandela Statue Fund. Chairman 2003-2007,
St Edward's Oxford North Wall Arts Centre. Patron and Steering Committee Member 2005-,
CLIC Sargent. Ambassador 2006-,
Greater London Fund for the Blind. Vice President 2006-,
The Richard Attenborough Regional Film Critics Award. Patron 2007- ,
Attenborough also heads a committee awarding the eponymous Attenborough Prize, a £2,000 annual arts prize celebrating creativity by emerging artists. The Attenborough Prize is awarded to the best contemporary visual artist among a shortlist of six artists presented to Lord Attenborough.
In Which We Serve
A young stoker (uncredited)
Schweik's New Adventures
The Hundred Pound Window
A Matter of Life and Death
An English pilot
School for Secrets
The Man Within
Dancing with Crime
London Belongs to Me
The Guinea Pig
The Lost People
Boys in Brown
The Magic Box
Hell is Sold Out
Father's Doing Fine
Eight O'Clock Walk
Thomas "Tom" Leslie Manning
The Ship That Died of Shame
Pvt. Percival Henry Cox
The Baby and the Battleship
Brothers in Law
The Man Upstairs
Sea of Sand
The League of Gentlemen
I'm All Right Jack
Sidney De Vere Cox
Capt. "Bunter" Phillips
The Angry Silence
Whistle Down the Wind
Only Two Can Play
The L-Shaped Room
The Dock Brief aka Trial and Error
The Great Escape
Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett
The Third Secret
Séance on a Wet Afternoon
Guns at Batasi
Regimental Sgt. Major Lauderdale
The Flight of the Phoenix
The Sand Pebbles
Only When I Larf
The Bliss of Mrs. Blossom
The Magic Christian
Oh! What a Lovely War
The Last Grenade
Gen. Charles Whiteley
A Severed Head
10 Rillington Place
John Reginald Christie
And Then There Were None
Judge Arthur Cannon
Cmdr. Sir Charles Swann
Maj. Lionel E. Roach
Shatranj ke khiladi
Lt. General Outram
A Bridge Too Far
Lunatic wearing glasses
The Human Factor
Col. John Daintry
A Chorus Line
Miracle on 34th Street
English Ambassador to Denmark
In Love and War
The Lost World: Jurassic Park
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat
Closing the Ring
In 2012 Attenborough was portrayed by Simon Callow in the BBC Four biopic The Best Possible Taste about Kenny Everett.
Richard Attenborough, Esq. (1923-1967),
Richard Attenborough, CBE (1967-1976),
Sir Richard Attenborough, CBE (1976-1993),
The Rt Hon. The Lord Attenborough, CBE (1993-)