Rangers Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow which plays in Scottish League One - the third tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground is Ibrox Stadium in the south-west of the city. Founded in 1872, Rangers were one of the ten founder members of the original Scottish Football League. It remained in Scotland's top division until the end of the 2011-12 season during which The Rangers Football Club Plc became insolvent and entered administration, resulting in liquidation when an agreement could not be reached with its creditors.
In June 2012, Sevco Scotland Ltd bought Rangers' business and assets, including Rangers FC, and thereafter secured both associate membership of the Scottish Football League and the transfer of The Rangers Football Club PLC's Scottish Football Association membership in time to enable Rangers to be relaunched in the Scottish Football League's Third Division at the start of season 2012-13.
In domestic football Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, and achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. They also won the Third Division title in 2013. In European football, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final. They won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being runner up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners up finish in Europe came in the 2008 UEFA Cup.
Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm since the late 19th century.
1.1 Formation and early years,
1.2 Bill Struth and Scot Symon,
1.3 Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace,
1.4 Graeme Souness and Walter Smith - 9 in a row,
1.5 Dick Advocaat and Alex McLeish,
1.6 Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith's return,
1.7 Ally McCoist and insolvency,
2 Crest and colours
2.3 Sponsors and manufacturers,
3 Stadium and training facility,
4.2 Sectarian chanting,
6 Ownership and finances
6.1 Incorporation to limited company and then to a PLC,
6.2 Craig Whyte and administration,
6.3 Liquidation of PLC and current ownership,
7 Rangers Charity Foundation,
9.1 First team squad,
9.2 Out on loan,
10 Board of directors,
11 Backroom staff
11.1 Team managers,
12.1 Domestic honours,
12.2 European honours,
12.3 Doubles and trebles,
12.4 Notable statistics,
13 UEFA rankings
13.1 Club coefficient,
14 Notable former players
14.1 Greatest ever team,
14.2 Scotland Football Hall of Fame,
14.3 Scotland Roll of Honour,
14.4 Scottish Sports Hall of Fame,
16 See also,
18 Further reading,
19 External links,
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rangers_F.C.
See also: List of Rangers F.C. seasons and Rangers F.C. Hall of Fame
Formation and early years:
The four founders of Rangers - brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath - met in early March in 1872. Rangers' first match, in May that year, was a 0-0 friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. In 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had their first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final; after drawing the first game Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and the cup was awarded to Vale of Leven. Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants' Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2-1, their first major cup. The first ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtic's establishment. Rangers lost 5-2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian.
The 1890-91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers, by then playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first ever league match on 16 August 1890 resulted in a 5-2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing equal-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2-2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3-1 victory over rivals Celtic in the final. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two league titles and three Scottish Cups.
Bill Struth and Scot Symon:
Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional new year holiday Old Firm match. Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, 2 League Cups, 7 war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8-1 win in the Southern Football League.
Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963-64 season, the era of 'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players. Rangers also lost by their biggest old firm margin of 7-1 to Celtic.
Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12-4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4-1 on aggregate. Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, losing 1-0 after extra time to Bayern Munich.
Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace:
The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of the New Year's Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans.
In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to finally achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3-2 victory over FC Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions and rioting by Rangers fans. Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans, later reduced on appeal to a year.
Emerging from the shadows of Jock Stein's Celtic side, Rangers regained ascendancy with notable domestic success under the stewardship of manager Jock Wallace. In his first season in charge - the club's centenary - Rangers won the Scottish Cup at Hampden in front of 122,714 supporters. In 1974-75, Wallace led Rangers to their first League championship triumph in eleven years, before winning the treble the following season, repeating the historic feat in 1977-78.
Graeme Souness and Walter Smith - 9 in a row:
Every year from the 1988-89 season until the 1996-97 season, Rangers won the league title. This nine-in-a-row achievement equalled Celtic's record, set prior to the forming of the Scottish Football League Premier Division, subsequent to which competing teams met 4 times a season. The first three of these seasons the club was managed by Graeme Souness, the latter six under the stewardship of Walter Smith.
Notable seasons included 1990-91, which culminated in a final day finale, Rangers securing a 2-0 victory at Ibrox over Aberdeen, who needed only a draw to secure the championship. Season 1992-93 was notable for a domestic treble of trophies, as well an extended run in the inaugural UEFA Champions League, the club at one stage only one goal from securing a place in the final.
Outstanding contributions from Player of the Season winners Ally McCoist (1991-92), Andy Goram (1992-93), Mark Hateley (1993-94), Brian Laudrup (1994-95 and 1996-97) and Paul Gascoigne (1995-96), were crucial to maintaining success. Rangers ninth consecutive championship title was secured at Tannadice Park on 7 May 1997, with a 1-0 victory over Dundee United.
Dick Advocaat and Alex McLeish:
In 1998, Dutchman Dick Advocaat became the club's first foreign manager. Nine-in-a-row era stalwarts having moved on, Advocaat invested heavily in the team with immediate results, leading the club to their sixth domestic treble. The league championship was won with a 3-0 victory at Celtic Park on 2 May 1999. A second consecutive league title was won by a record 21 point margin, the club securing a domestic double with a 4-0 Scottish Cup final victory over Aberdeen. Rangers' campaign in the Champions League was promising, defeating UEFA Cup winners Parma en route.
Advocaat's third season saw Rangers fail to compete domestically against Celtic under new manager Martin O'Neill. Despite investment in the team including Tore Andre Flo for a club record £12 million, European success beyond the Champions league group stages again proved elusive. After a slow start to the following season, Advocaat resigned from his post in December 2001 to be replaced as manager by Alex McLeish.
In his first full campaign, 2002-03 season saw McLeish become the sixth Rangers manager to deliver a domestic treble. The championship was won on goal difference during a dramatic final day 6-1 triumph over Dunfermline Athletic at Ibrox, securing Rangers' 50th league title, the first club in the world to achieve the feat. Major expenditure sanctioned by Chairman David Murray had burdened Rangers with considerable debts in the region of £52m. The club's worsening financial state saw many of the team's top players leave in the summer of 2003, the following season failing to deliver any trophies, only the second such occasion since 1985-86.
The 2004-05 season restored success to Rangers, who were boosted by signings such as Jean-Alain Boumsong,Dado Pršo and Nacho Novo, along with the return of former captain Barry Ferguson. The club's league championship triumph culminated in a dramatic last day finish. The destination of the trophy changed unexpectedly, with Celtic conceding late goals to Motherwell at Fir Park whilst Rangers led against Hibernian, requiring the helicopter carrying the SPL trophy to change direction and deliver the prize to the Easter Road ground in Leith.
Despite beginning as favourites to retain the championship, Rangers suffered an unprecedented run of poor results between September and November, a club record run of 10 games without a win. Included within this period, a 1-1 draw with Inter Milan took Rangers into the last 16 of the Champions League, the first Scottish team to achieve the feat since 1993, the club eventually exiting on the away goals rule to Villarreal. On 9 February 2006, it was announced by chairman David Murray that McLeish would be standing down as manager at the end of that season.
Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith's return:
Frenchman Paul Le Guen replaced Alex McLeish as manager after season 2005-06. The season started poorly for Rangers, with an early exit from the League Cup whilst rivals Celtic built a commanding lead at the top of the table. In the UEFA Cup Rangers became the first Scottish side to qualify for the last 32 of the competition since the introduction of the group phase after finishing their group unbeaten. However, amid claims of disharmony between the manager and captain Barry Ferguson, it was announced on 4 January 2007 that Le Guen had left Rangers by mutual consent. On 10 January 2007, former boss Walter Smith resigned from his post as Scotland manager to return to the Ibrox helm, with Ally McCoist as assistant manager.
The following season Rangers contested the UEFA Cup after dropping into the competition from the Champions League. The club reached the final, defeating Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen, Sporting Lisbon and Fiorentina along the way. The final in Manchester against Zenit St. Petersburg, who were managed by former Rangers manager Dick Advocaat, ended in a 2-0 defeat.
The 2008-09 season saw Rangers recover from an early exit from the UEFA Champions League to FBK Kaunas of Lithuania. The club secured their 52nd league championship on the last day of the season with a 3-0 victory of Dundee United at Tannadice. Rangers also successfully defended the Scottish Cup, a 33rd competition triumph, defeating Falkirk 1-0 in the final.
The 2009-10 season saw Rangers reach their fifth consecutive domestic final: against St. Mirren in the Scottish League Cup, the club overcame a two-men deficit from red cards, a late deciding goal from Kenny Miller securing a record 27th competition victory. The league championship title was retained with three matches remaining at Easter Road, defeating Hibernian 1-0 with a Kyle Lafferty goal. The 2010-11 season, Smith's final season in charge, saw Rangers retain the League Cup, defeating Celtic at Hampden with a Nikica Jelavić goal in extra time. A third consecutive title was won by beating Kilmarnock 5-1 on the last day of the season, Smith's final match in charge of the club.
Ally McCoist and insolvency:
As announced the previous year, Ally McCoist took over from Walter Smith in June 2011 with his first competitive match in charge against Hearts in July, ending in a 1-1 draw. Rangers lost 2-1 on aggregate to Swedish side Malmö FF in the Champions League third round qualifying match, and were then knocked out of Europe after losing 3-2 on aggregate in the Europa League qualifying match against Slovenian side Maribor. In the first Old Firm match of the 2011-12 season and McCoist's first in charge of the club Rangers won 4-2 at Ibrox. Good league form saw Rangers maintain top spot in the SPL and were unbeaten after 11 games. They were knocked out of the League Cup by Falkirk and the Scottish Cup by Dundee Utd at Ibrox.
Rangers was placed into administration on 14 February 2012 as a result of financial problems and a dispute with HMRC. This resulted in the club being deducted 10 points, as per SPL rules, which extended Celtic's lead at the top of the league to 14 points. Rangers' first game in administration was played in front of a sell-out crowd at Ibrox though they lost 1-0 to Kilmarnock, and poor form continued with defeats to Hearts and Dundee United. The last significant game for Rangers in the 2011-12 season was the Old Firm game on 25 March where a win for Celtic would see their rivals win the championship at Ibrox. Rangers won 3-2 however and ultimately finished the season in second place behind Celtic.
A failure to reach agreement with creditors on 14 June 2012 led to The Rangers Football Club Plc (since renamed RFC 2012 Plc) entering the process of liquidation. Its business, assets and history were sold to a new company, Sevco Scotland Ltd, which then applied for the transfer of Rangers' SFA membership which was agreed by the SFA upon acceptance of a number of conditions, including a one-year transfer ban (taking effect from the end of that summer's transfer window). Though an application for membership of the Scottish Premier League was rejected, an application to the Scottish Football League was accepted, with member clubs deciding to place Rangers in the lowest division, the Third, for the start of the 2012-13 season rather than the First Division as SPL and SFA had sought. On July 31, 2012, shareholders of the new company voted to change the company name from Sevco Scotland Ltd to The Rangers Football Club Ltd.
Rangers' first home match in Division 3 was a 5-1 victory over East Stirlingshire in front of a crowd of 49,118 at Ibrox, a world record for a football match in a fourth tier league. However, away from home, Rangers started their league campaign with three successive draws before losing 1-0 to Stirling Albion, at the time the bottom club. Rangers reached the third round of the Scottish Challenge Cup where they were defeated by Queen of the South at Ibrox, the quarter finals of the Scottish League Cup where they lost 3-0 at home to Inverness Caley Thistle and the fifth round of the Scottish Cup where they were defeated 3-0 by Dundee United. Rangers beat their own new record against Queens Park with an attendance of 49,463 and again against Stirling Albion with an attendance of 49,913. Rangers clinched the Division 3 title on 30 March after a goalless draw at Montrose.
Apart from being defeated 2-1 by Forfar in the First Round of the League Cup on 3rd August, season 2013/14 got off to an excellent start with Rangers winning maximum league points in their first 12 games in League One.
Crest and colours:
Unusually for a football club, Rangers have two different official crests. Today the original scroll crest appears on the club's strips whereas the lion rampant club crest is used by the media, on club merchandise and on official club documents. Both crests have undergone minor variations since their introduction. It is believed that the scroll crest, representing the letters RFC overlapping, has been used since the club's formation in 1872, although the oldest remaining piece of memorabilia containing this crest is from the 1881-82 season. The scroll crest was replaced in 1959 with the lion rampant club crest which featured a lion rampant, an old-style football and the club's motto Ready, which was shortened from Aye Ready (meaning Always Ready in Scots), all surrounded by the team name, Rangers Football Club. The lion rampant club crest was modernised in 1968; the lion rampant, team name, club motto and old style football all remained. It was again updated ever so slightly in the early 1990s to the current version. The modern circular crest is regularly used on club merchandise and by the media; it has never featured prominently on the club strip. Since 1968 Rangers have had two crests, the scroll crest made a return appearing on the chest of the club shirt for the first time while the modernised club crest was still the club's official logo. The scroll crest first appeared on the teams shorts for the start of the 1978-79 season.
The way the scroll crest has appeared on the club shirt has varied slightly through the years. Between 1990 and 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto appeared above and below the Crest respectively. Between 1997 and 1999 the scroll crest featured within a shield. After a successful end to the season in 2003, which delivered Rangers a Domestic Treble and their 50th league title; five stars were added to the top of the scroll crest, one for every ten titles won by the club. The team wore a special crest on 8 December 2012 in a home league match against Stirling Albion, to commemorate the 140th anniversary of their formation. '1872-2012' appeared above the scroll crest with the words '140 years' featuring below.
Lion rampant club crest 1959-1968. Never appeared on the shirt.
Lion rampant club crest 1968-1991. Never appeared on the shirt.
Scroll crest. Appeared on the chest of the Rangers shirt 1968-Present.
Scroll crest with 5 stars. Worn on the Rangers shirt 2003-Present.
The club colours of Rangers F.C. are royal blue, white and red. However, for the majority of the first forty-eight years of Rangers existence the club played in a plain lighter blue home shirt. The only deviation from this was a four season period from 1879 when the side wore the lighter shade of blue and white in a hooped style. Traditionally this is accompanied by white shorts (often with royal blue and/or red trim) and black socks with red turn-downs. Rangers moved from the lighter shade of blue to royal blue in 1921, and have had a royal blue home shirt every year since. Black socks were first included in 1883 for five seasons before disappearing for eight years but became a more permanent fixture from 1896 onwards. When the red turn-downs were added to the socks in 1904, the strip began to look more like the modern day Rangers home kit. Occasionally the home kit will be altered by the shorts and socks, sometimes replacing the black socks with white ones; or replacing the white shorts and black socks combination with royal blue shorts and socks.
The basic design of Rangers away strips has changed far more than the traditional home strip. Rangers original change strip, used between 1876 and 1879, was all white featuring blue and white hooped socks and a light blue six pointed star on the chest. White and red have been the most common colours for Rangers alternate strips, though dark and light blue have also featured highly. In 1994 Rangers introduced a third kit. This is usually worn if both the home and away kits clash with their opponents. The colours used in the third kits have included combinations of white, red, dark and light blue as well as black.
Selection of Rangers kits through history
Sponsors and manufacturers:
Since 1978 when Rangers signed a deal with Umbro they have had a specific kit manufacturer and since 1984 have had a kit sponsor. When Rangers played French sides AJ Auxerre and RC Strasbourg in the 1996-97 Champions League and the UEFA Cup respectively, due to a French ban on alcohol advertising the team wore the logo of Center Parcs instead of McEwan's Lager. The following tables detail the shirt sponsors and kit suppliers of Rangers by year:
Stadium and training facility:
The club used a variety of grounds in Glasgow as a venue for home matches in the years between 1872 and 1899. The first was Flesher's Haugh, situated on Glasgow Green, followed by Burnbank in the Kelvinbridge area of the city, and then Kinning Park for ten years from the mid-1870s to the mid-1880s. From February of the 1886-87 season, Cathkin Park was used until the first Ibrox Park, in the Ibrox area of south-west Glasgow, was inaugurated for the following season. Ibrox Stadium in its current incarnation was originally designed by the architect Archibald Leitch, a Rangers fan who also played a part in the design of, among others, Old Trafford in Manchester and Highbury in London. The stadium was inaugurated on 30 December 1899, and Rangers defeated Hearts 3-1 in the first match held there.
Rangers' training facility is located in Auchenhowie, Glasgow. The facility is known as Murray Park after former chairman and owner Sir David Murray. It was proposed by then-manager Dick Advocaat upon his arrival at the club in 1998. It was completed in 2001 at a cost of £14 million. Murray Park was the first purpose-built facility of its kind in Scotland, and incorporates features including nine football pitches, a state of the art gym, a hydrotherapy pool, and a video-editing suite. Rangers' youth teams are also accommodated at Murray Park, with around 140 players between under-10 and under-19 age groups using the training centre. Various first-team players have come through the ranks at Murray Park, including Alan Hutton, Chris Burke, Stevie Smith, John Fleck and Charlie Adam. International club teams playing in Scotland, as well as national sides, have previously used Murray Park for training, and Advocaat's South Korea team used it for training prior to the 2006 World Cup.
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangers_F.C._supporters
See also: Rangers Supporters' Trust, Follow Follow (fanzine), and 2008 UEFA Cup Final riots
Rangers FC are one of the best supported clubs in Europe, with an average attendance that is consistently one of the highest on the continent, the figure for the 2012-13 season being the 17th largest home league attendance. The club's website lists over 150 supporters' clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with 95 further clubs spread across over 20 countries around the world. Rangers fans have contributed to several records for high attendances, including the highest home attendance for a league fixture, 118,567 on 2 January 1939. Rangers record highest attendance was against Hibernian on 27 March 1948 in the Scottish Cup semi-final at Hampden Park. Rangers beat Hibernian 1-0 in front of a packed 143,570 crowd.
In 2008, an estimated 150,000 Rangers supporters, many without match tickets, travelled to Manchester for the UEFA Cup Final. Despite most supporters behaving "impeccably", Rangers fans were involved in serious trouble and rioting. A minority of fans rioted in the city centre, clashing violently with police and damaging property, resulting in 42 being arrested for a variety of offences.
The club's most distinct rivalry is with Glasgow neighbours Celtic F.C.; the two clubs are collectively known as the Old Firm, though they are not currently playing in the same league. Rangers' traditional support is largely drawn from the Protestant Unionist community, whilst Celtic's traditional support is largely drawn from the Catholic community. The first Old Firm match was won by Celtic and there have been nearly four hundred matches played to date. The Old Firm rivalry has fuelled many assaults, sometimes leading to deaths, on Old Firm derby days; an activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, admissions to hospital emergency rooms have increased over normal levels and journalist Franklin Foer noted that in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, as well as hundreds of assaults.
The rivalry with Aberdeen began in the late 1970s when the two clubs were among the strongest in Scotland. Relations between fans were further soured during a league match on 8 October 1988, when Aberdeen player Neil Simpson's tackle on Rangers' Ian Durrant resulted in Durrant being injured for two years. Resentment continued and in 1998 an article in Rangers match programme branded Aberdeen fans "scum", although Rangers later issued a "full and unreserved apology" to Aberdeen and their supporters, which was accepted by Aberdeen. Fixtures have been described as "even more of a powderkeg than Old Firm games".
Rangers' relaunch in the Third Division has led to the club's original rivalry with Queen's Park being renewed for the first time since 1958 in the league. Rangers and Queen's Park first played each other in March 1879 some nine years before the start of the Old Firm rivalry. Matches with Queen's Park were advertised as the "Original Glasgow Derby" by Rangers and the Scottish media; and as the "Oldest Derby in the World" by Queen's Park.
Sectarian chanting by supporters incurs criticism and sanctions upon the club as well as convictions against individuals identified. In 1999, the vice chairman of The Rangers Football Club Ltd, Donald Findlay, resigned after being filmed singing sectarian songs during a supporters club event. UEFA's Control and Disciplinary Body has punished Rangers for incidents during European ties, most notably Villarreal in 2006,Osasuna in 2007, and PSV Eindhoven in 2011.
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sectarianism_in_Glasgow
During the 19th century, many immigrants came to Glasgow from Ireland - this was a time of considerable anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment in Scotland. The early success of Celtic, a club associated with the Irish and Catholic community, has been described as sharpening Rangers' Protestant Unionist identity, contributing to the eventual absence of openly Catholic players from the team. From the early 20th century onwards, Catholics were not knowingly signed by the club, nor employed in other prominent roles as an 'unwritten rule'.
In 1989, Rangers signed Maurice "Mo" Johnston, "their first major Roman Catholic signing". Johnston was the highest-profile Catholic to sign for the club since the World War I era, though other Catholics had signed for Rangers before. Since Johnston's signing, an influx of overseas footballers has contributed to Catholic players becoming common place at Rangers. In 1999 Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of the club.
Rangers partnered with Celtic to form the 'Old Firm Alliance', an initiative aimed at educating children from across Glasgow about issues like healthy eating and fitness, as well as awareness of anti-social behaviour, sectarianism and racism. The club's 'Follow With Pride' campaign was launched in 2007 to improve the club's image and build on previous anti-racist, anti-sectarian campaigns.William Gaillard, UEFA's Director of Communications, commended the SFA and Scottish clubs, including Rangers, for their actions in fighting discrimination. In September 2007, UEFA praised Rangers for the measures the club has taken against sectarianism.
Ownership and finances:
Incorporation to limited company and then to a PLC:
Rangers Football Club became a limited company on 27 May 1899 when it was incorporated as The Rangers Football Club Ltd. It continued in this form until, in 2000, David Murray decided to list the company on the stock exchange, making it a public limited company. The name of the company was therefore changed to The Rangers Football Club Plc.
Craig Whyte and administration:
On 6 May 2011, Craig Whyte bought David Murray's shares for £1. On 13 February 2012. Whyte filed legal papers at the Court of Session giving notice of their intention to appoint administrators. The next day, The Rangers Football Club Plc - which was subsequently renamed RFC 2012 Plc - entered administration over non-payment of £9 million in PAYE and VAT taxes to HM Revenue and Customs. In April the administrators estimated that the club's total debts could top £134m which was largely dependent on the outcome of a First Tier Tax Tribunal concerning a disputed tax bill in relation to an EBT scheme employed by the club since 2001. However, on 20 November 2012, the Tribunal ruled in favour of Rangers. If that decision is upheld the tax bill could be significantly reduced from an estimated £74m to under £2m. On 4 February 2013, HMRC lodged an appeal of the FFT decision and a further hearing will be carried out by a Second Tier Tribunal.
On 25 June 2012, the Crown Office asked Strathclyde Police to investigate the purchase of Rangers and the club's subsequent financial management during Whytes tenure.
Liquidation of PLC and current ownership:
Charles Green agreed a deal with the administrators of The Rangers Football Club Plc to purchase its business and assets, including Rangers FC, for a £5.5million fee if the proposed CVA was to be rejected. On 14 June 2012, the formal rejection of the proposed CVA meant that the old company would enter the liquidation process. The accountancy firm BDO were appointed to reveal why the company running the club failed.
Hours after the CVA's rejection, Charles Green completed the purchase of the business and assets, including Rangers FC, of the old company through the company Sevco Scotland Ltd.
The new company acquired Ibrox Stadium and Murray Park along with various other assets including intellectual property, goodwill and various contracts. Sevco Scotland Ltd subsequently changed its name to 'The Rangers Football Club Ltd' at the end of July 2012.
As a result of Rangers' "assets, business and history" being sold to a new company when The Rangers Football Club Plc (subsequently renamed as RFC 2012 Plc) entered the liquidation process, the extent to which Rangers can be regarded as a continuation of the club officially founded in 1872 has been interpreted differently. Rangers Football Club has been described by some in the mainstream media as a "new club", whilst the then Chief Executive, Charles Green, maintained "this is still Rangers". Though the SPL chairman Neil Doncaster said "it is an existing club, even though it's a new company", SFA chief executive Stewart Regan has described Rangers as having moved from being "a club in administration trying to do a company voluntary arrangement, to a club facing liquidation and becoming a newco."
The new company formally applied to acquire the SPL share of The Rangers Football Club Plc on 18 June 2012. The SPL agreed to consider the request to transfer the share, but on 4 July, voted by 10-1 to reject the application. Kilmarnock abstained and the old Rangers company voted in favour. The Rangers Football Club Plc's share in the SPL was subsequently transferred to The Dundee Football Club Ltd. Thereafter, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with Rangers securing associate membership on 13 July 2012 at an SFL meeting by a vote of 29-1. On the same day a place in the fourth tier of Scottish Football, Scottish Third Division for the 2012-13 season, rather than the Scottish First Division from the two options presented to the SFL member clubs with 25 of the 30 clubs voting that the club should be placed in Division Three.
An application was made for a transfer of SFA membership on 29 June 2012, with the new company applying for the transfer of the membership of The Rangers Football Club Plc. Agreement was reached on the transfer with the new company accepting a number of conditions relating to the old company.
At the end of 2012, Rangers International Football Club Plc became the holding company for the group, having acquired The Rangers Football Club Ltd on the basis of a one for one share exchange.
Rangers Charity Foundation:
The Rangers Charity Foundation was created in 2002 and participates in a wide range of charitable work, regularly involving Rangers staff and star players. The foundation also has partnerships with UNICEF, The Prostate Cancer Charity and Erskine, and is responsible for over £2.3 million in donations. As well as fundraising, the Rangers Charity Foundation regularly bring sick, disabled and disadvantaged children to attend matches and tours at Ibrox, with the chance to meet the players.
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Rangers_F.C._records_and_statistics
Record league percentage win
Highest Ever Attendance
143,570 vs Hibernian, 27 March 1948
British record home Attendance
118,567 vs Celtic, 2 January 1939
World record fourth tier Attendance
50,048 vs Berwick Rangers, 4 May 2013
Highest European Attendance
100,000 vs Dynamo Kyiv, 16 September 1987
Highest scoring match
14-2 vs Whitehill, 29 September 1883
14-2 vs Blairgowrie, 20 January 1934
Record league victory
10-0 vs Hibernian, 24 December 1898
10-2 vs Raith Rovers, 16 December 1967
World record league titles won
World record trebles won
World record trophies won
John Greig, 755 appearances. 772 in total 1960-1978.
Ally McCoist, 355 goals. 362 in total 1983-1998.
Most league goals
Ally McCoist, 251 goals
Most Scotland caps whilst playing at Rangers
Ally McCoist, 60 caps. 61 in total
First team squad:
As of 19 October 2013Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Lee Wallace (vice-captain)
Lee McCulloch (captain)
Out on loan:
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Scott Gallacher (On loan at Airdrieonians)
Andrew Mitchell (On loan at Annan Athletic)
Kyle McAusland (On loan at Ayr United)
Board of directors:
As of 14 November 2013
Chief Executive Officer
As of November 2013
Head of Sports Science
Head of Youth development
Head of Football administration
Dr Paul Jackson
For a list of team managers, see List of Rangers F.C. managers.
Only 13 men have been manager of Rangers during their 141-year history. The longest serving manager is Bill Struth who served for 34 years and 26 days. Rangers have had two foreign managers during their history; Dick Advocaat (1 June 1998 to 12 December 2001) and Paul Le Guen (9 May 2006 to 4 January 2007) who is the manager with the shortest time at the club. Graeme Souness is the only player-manager during Rangers' history.
The most successful manager in terms of the number of trophies won is Bill Struth with 18 League titles, 10 Scottish Cups and 2 League Cups, but the most successful manager in terms of trophies to time served is Walter Smith with 7 League titles, 3 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 7 years 42 days. During Smiths second spell which was he managed during financial constraints he won 3 League titles, 2 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 4 years 126 days. Rangers' other manager with notable success was William Waddell who won the European Cup Winner's Cup during his 2 years and 175 day stint. Ally McCoist is the present manager of Rangers F.C.
See also: Reserve Honours, Youth Honours, and Rangers Honours
As of June 2013
Scottish League Championships: 54,
1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011
Scottish Football League Third Division: 1,
Scottish Cup: 33,
1894, 1897, 1898, 1903, 1928, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2009
Scottish League Cup: 27,
1947, 1949, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangers_F.C._in_European_football
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1,
Doubles and trebles:
Scottish Cup, League Cup, League Title: 7,
1948-49, 1963-64, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1992-93, 1998-99, 2002-03
Scottish Cup and League Cup: 4,
1962, 1979, 2002, 2008
Scottish Cup and League Title: 11,
1927-28, 1929-30, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1949-50, 1952-53, 1962-63, 1991-92, 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2008-09
League Cup and League Title: 10,
1947, 1961, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2005, 2010, 2011
Rangers became the first British side to reach a European final in 1961.
See also: UEFA coefficient
As of 15 November 2013
GNK Dinamo Zagreb
Notable former players:
The "Greatest Ever" Rangers 11 chosen by fans, in 1999. The coach chosen was Walter Smith.
Main article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Rangers_F.C._players
See also: List of Rangers F.C. international footballers and Rangers F.C. Hall of Fame
Greatest ever team:
The following team was voted the greatest ever Rangers team by supporters in 1999. When the vote was launched it was feared that younger voters would ignore the great service of many of the pre-war stars (notably the most successful captain and most successful manager the club has ever had, Davie Meiklejohn and Bill Struth respectively). When the ballot was launched Donald Findlay stated it would be limited to post Second World War players because "few can recall players of these earlier eras":
John Greig - Voted greatest ever Ranger,
Brian Laudrup - Voted Rangers' greatest ever foreign player,
Jim Baxter - Voted third greatest ever Ranger,
Ally McCoist - Voted second greatest ever Ranger,
Scotland Football Hall of Fame:
To 2012, 25 players and managers to have been involved with Rangers in their careers, have entered the Scottish Football Hall of Fame:
Robert Smyth McColl,
Scotland Roll of Honour:
The Scotland national football team roll of honour recognises players who have gained 50 or more international caps for Scotland. The 8 inductees to have played for Rangers in their career are:
Scottish Sports Hall of Fame:
In the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame, 3 Rangers players have been selected, they are:
As of 7 November 2013, Rangers are sponsored by:
Official Club Sponsor - Blackthorn Cider,
Official Kit Manufacturer - Puma,
Official Soft Drink - Coca Cola,
Official Retail Partner - Sports Direct,
Official Logistics Partner - M & H Logistics (Logistics Company),
Official Retail Betting Partner - Ladbrokes,
Official Sports Drink - Powerade,
Official Electronic Cigarette Partner - E-Lites (Electronic Cigarette Company),
Official Suit Supplier - Cruise Fashion (Clothing Brand),
Official Vehicle Supplier - Marbill (Bus Hire),
Official Vehicle Supplier - Bruce's Corporate (Bus Hire),
Scottish Professional Football League