Further information: Names of the Levant
Outremer (French: outre-mer) for "overseas", was a general name given to the Crusader states established after the First Crusade: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The name was often equated to the Levant of Renaissance.
The term was, in general, used to refer to any land "overseas"; for example, Louis IV of France was called "Louis d'Outremer" as he was raised in England.
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The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas", is notably used for the overseas departments and territories of France (In French: Départements d'outre-mer - Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM - TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)).
The author Chaz Brenchley set his series The Books of Outremer in an alternate universe version of this region.
A kingdom of French refugees bears the name of France-Outre-Mer in S. M. Stirling's book The Peshawar Lancers.
Judith Tarr's Alamut series of books are set in Outremer, mostly in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the city of Acre.
Robert E. Howard's stories of Cormac Fitzgeoffrey take place in Outremer and environs.
David Nicolle: Knight of Outremer 1187-1344 AD, Warrior No. 18. Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2003. ISBN 1-85532-555-1.,
Robert E. Howard: Hawks of Outremer, Donald M. Grant, Publisher, West Kingston, Rhode Island 1979.