This article is about infixes in natural languages. For the mathematical notation, see Infix notation.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word). It contrasts with adfix, a rare term for an affix attached to the end of a stem, such as a prefix or suffix.
When marking text for interlinear glossing, most affixes are separated with a hyphen, but infixes are separated with 〈angle brackets〉.
2 Other languages
2.1 Indo-European languages
2.3 Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages,
3 Similar processes,
5 See also,
English has almost no true infixes (as opposed to tmesis, see below), and those it does have are marginal. A few are heard in colloquial speech, and a few more are found in technical terminology.
Chemical nomenclature includes the infixes 〈pe〉, signifying complete hydrogenation (from piperidine), and 〈et〉 (from ethyl), signifying the ethyl radical C2H5. Thus from the existing word picoline is derived pipecoline, and from lutidine is derived lupetidine; from phenidine and xanthoxylin are derived phenetidine and xanthoxyletin.,
None of the following are recognized in standard English.
The infix 〈iz〉 or 〈izn〉 is characteristic of hip-hop slang, for example hizouse for house and shiznit for shit. Infixes also occur in some language games.,
The 〈ma〉 infix, whose location in the word is described in Yu (2004), gives a word an ironic pseudo-sophistication, as in sophistimacated, saxomaphone, and edumacation. This exists as a slang phenomenon.,
For the use of 'expletive infixes' such as fucking and bloody, which are words rather than affixes, see tmesis below.
For a list of words relating to infixes, see the Infixes by language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The present tense of some Proto-Indo-European verbs adds a nasal infix (m, n) to the basic root; the stems of the other tenses have the root without the infix.
Latin present vincō "I win" -- perfect passive participle victus "conquered",
Ancient Greek lambánō (also with -an- suffix) 'I take' -- aorist élǎbon 'I took',
In Nicaragua and neighboring countries, the Spanish diminutive affix becomes an infix 〈it〉 in names: Óscar ˈoskar → Osquítar osˈkitar (cf. standard Oscarito); Edgar → Edguítar; Victor → Victítor.
Arabic uses a common infix, 〈t〉 ت for Form VIII verbs, usually a reflexive of Form I. It is placed after the first consonant of the root; an epenthetic i- prefix is also added since words cannot begin with a consonant cluster. An example is اجتهد ijtahada "he worked hard", from جهد jahada "he strove". (The words "ijtihad" and "jihad" are nouns derived from these two verbs.)
Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages:
Infixes are common in Austronesian and Austroasiatic languages. For example, in Tagalog, a grammatical form similar to the active voice is formed by adding the infix 〈um〉 near the beginning of a verb. Tagalog has borrowed the English word graduate as a verb; to say "I graduated" a speaker uses the derived form grumaduate.
Khmer, an Austroasiatic language, has seven different infixes. They include the nominalizing infix 〈b〉, which derives lbeun 'speed' from leun 'fast' and lbong ' trial' from long 'to test, to haunt'.
In Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) there are at least 5 kinds of infixes (sisipan). They are 〈el〉, 〈em〉, 〈er〉, 〈ah〉, and 〈in〉. Examples:
The word 'gembung' means "bloated", while 'gelembung' means "bubble"'.,
The word 'cerlang' means "luminous", while 'cemerlang' means "brilliant"'.,
The word 'gigi' means "tooth", while 'gerigi' means "serration"'.,
The word 'dulu' means "first" or "advance" or "olden", while 'dahulu' means "formerly"'.,
The word 'kerja' means "work", while 'kinerja' means "performance"'.,
In Seri some verbs form the plural stem with infixation of 〈tóo〉 after the first vowel of the root; compare the singular stem ic 'plant (verb)' with the plural stem itóoc. Examples: itíc 'did s/he plant it?' and ititóoc 'did they sow it?'.
Tmesis, the use of a lexical word rather than an affix, is sometimes considered a type of infixation. These are the so-called 'expletive infixes', as in fan-fucking-tastic and abso-bloody-lutely. Since these are not affixes, they are commonly disqualified from being considered infixes.
Sequences of adfixes (prefixes or suffixes) do not result in infixes: An infix must be internal to a word stem. Thus the word originally, formed by adding the suffix -ly to original, does not turn the suffix -al into an infix. There is simply a sequence of two suffixes, origin-al-ly. In order for -al- to be considered an infix, it would have to have been inserted in the non-existent word *originly. The "infixes" in the tradition of Bantu linguistics are often sequences of prefixes of this type, though there may be debate over specific cases.
The Semitic languages have a form of ablaut (changing the vowels within words, as in English sing, sang, sung, song) that is sometimes called infixation, as the vowels are placed between the consonants of the root. However, this interdigitation of a discontinuous root with a discontinuous affix is more often called transfixation.
See also interfix, which joins a compound word, as in speed-o-meter.
When glossing, it is conventional to set off infixes with 〈angle brackets〉, rather than the hyphens used to set off prefixes and suffixes:
sh〈izn〉it, saxo〈ma〉phone, pi〈pe〉coline
which is a suffix -ly added to the word original, which is itself a suffix -al added to the root origin.