Nigel Paul Farage (/ˈfærɑːʒ/; born 3 April 1964) is a British politician and leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) since 2010; a position he also held from September 2006 to November 2009. Since 1999, he has been a Member of the European Parliament for South East England and co-chairs the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.
Farage was a founding member of UKIP, having left the Conservative Party in 1992 after the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. Having unsuccessfully campaigned in European and Westminster parliamentary elections for UKIP since 1994, he won a seat as MEP for South East England in the 1999 European Parliament Election - the first year the regional list system was used - and was re-elected in 2004 and 2009.
In September 2006, Farage became the UKIP Leader and led the party through the 2009 European Parliament Election when it received the second highest share of the popular vote, defeating Labour and the Liberal Democrats with over two million votes. He stepped down in November 2009 to concentrate on contesting the Buckingham seat of the Speaker, John Bercow, at the 2010 general election. Farage failed to unseat Bercow, receiving the third highest share of the vote in the constituency.
In November 2010, Farage successfully stood in the 2010 UKIP leadership contest, following the resignation of its leader, Lord Pearson of Rannoch. Farage was also ranked 41st in The Daily Telegraph's Top 100 most influential right-wingers poll in October 2009, citing his media savvy and his success with UKIP in the European Elections. Farage was ranked 58th in the 2010 list compiled by Iain Dale and Brian Brivati for The Daily Telegraph. In the same list published in 2012, Farage was ranked 17th and in 2013 was ranked 2nd behind the Prime Minister.
Farage has been noted for his passionate and sometimes controversial speeches in the European Parliament and has strongly criticized the Euro and its related single currency project.
2 Political career
2.1 Conservative Party,
2.2 UKIP and the European Parliament,
2.3 UKIP party leadership,
2.4 Westminster elections
2.4.1 2010 UK General Election,
2.4.2 Injury in air crash,
2.5 Alternative Vote referendum, May 2011,
2.6 May 2012 London mayoral and local elections,
2.7 May 2013 local elections,
2.8 2015 UK General Election,
3.1 Copyright infringement,
3.2 Expenses disclosure,
3.3 Jacques Barrot,
3.4 José Manuel Barroso,
3.5 Joseph Daul,
3.6 Prince Charles,
3.7 Herman Van Rompuy,
3.8 Visit to Scotland,
3.9 Future televised debates,
3.10 Alleged racism at school,
4 Views on the euro,
5 Electoral performance,
6 Personal life,
9 Further reading,
10 External links,
Farage was born in Herne, Kent, on 3 April 1964, to Guy Justus Oscar Farage and Barbara Stevens. His father was a stockbroker who worked in the City of London financial district. A profile on BBC Radio 4 claimed he was an alcoholic and he left the family home when Nigel was five years old.
Farage was educated at Dulwich College, a public school in south London. Upon graduating in 1982, he decided not to go to university, but to work in the City trading commodities. Initially, he joined the American commodity brokerage firm Drexel Burnham Lambert, transferring to Credit Lyonnais Rouse in 1986. He joined Refco in 1994, and Natexis Metals in 2003.
Active in the Conservative Party from his school days, Farage left the party in 1992 when John Major's Government signed the Treaty on European Union at Maastricht.
UKIP and the European Parliament:
Farage was a founding member of UKIP in 1993. He was elected to the European Parliament in 1999 and re-elected in 2004 and 2009. Farage is presently the leader of the thirteen-member UKIP contingent in the European Parliament, and co-leader of the multinational Eurosceptic group, Europe of Freedom and Democracy.
UKIP party leadership:
On 12 September 2006, Farage was elected leader of UKIP with 45% of the vote, 20% ahead of his nearest rival. He pledged to bring discipline to the party and to maximise UKIP's representation in local, parliamentary and other elections. In a PM programme interview on BBC Radio 4 that day he pledged to end the public perception of UKIP as a single-issue party and to work with allied politicians in the Better Off Out campaign, committing himself not to stand against the MPs who have signed up to that campaign (ten in all at this moment).
In his maiden speech to the UKIP conference, on 8 October 2006, Farage told delegates that the party was "at the centre-ground of British public opinion" and the "real voice of opposition". He said: "We've got three social democratic parties in Britain - Labour, Lib Dem and Conservative are virtually indistinguishable from each other on nearly all the main issues" and "you can't put a cigarette paper between them and that is why there are nine million people who don't vote now in general elections that did back in 1992."
At 10pm on 19 October 2006, Farage took part in a three-hour live interview and phone-in with James Whale on the national radio station talkSPORT. Four days later, Whale announced on his show his intention to stand as UKIP's candidate in the 2008 London Mayoral Election. Farage said that Whale "not only has guts, but an understanding of what real people think". Whale later decided not to stand and UKIP was represented by Gerard Batten.
Farage stood again for the UKIP leadership in 2010 (having stood down the year before, to focus on his unsuccessful campaign in the Buckingham election) after his successor Lord Pearson had stood down, and on 5 November 2010 it was announced he had won the leadership contest.
Farage had unsuccessfully contested British parliamentary elections for UKIP five times, both before and after his election as an MEP in 1999. Under the 2002 European Union decision to forbid MEPs from holding a dual mandate, if he were to be elected to the House of Commons, he would have to resign his seat as MEP.
When he contested the Bromley & Chislehurst constituency in a May 2006 by-election, following the death of Eurosceptic Conservative MP Eric Forth, Farage came third, winning 8% of the vote, beating the Labour Party candidate. This was the second-best by-election result recorded by UKIP out of 25 results, and the first time since the Liverpool Walton by-election in 1991 that a party in government had been pushed into fourth place in a parliamentary by-election on mainland Britain.
2010 UK General Election:
On 4 September 2009, Farage resigned as the UKIP's leader to focus on his campaign to become Member of Parliament for Buckingham at Westminster in the 2010 general election. He later told Times journalist Camilla Long that UKIP internal fights took up far too much time.
Farage stood against sitting Buckingham MP, John Bercow, the newly elected Speaker of the House of Commons, despite the convention that the Speaker, as a political neutral, is not normally challenged in his or her bid for re-election by any of the major parties.
Farage came third with 8,401 votes. Bercow was re-elected and in second place with 10,331 votes was John Stevens, a former Conservative MEP who campaigned as an independent accompanied by "Flipper the Dolphin" (a reference to MPs flipping second homes).
Injury in air crash:
On 6 May 2010, the morning of the election, Farage was travelling in a two-seater PZL-104 Wilga 35A aircraft with a pro-UKIP banner attached, when the plane crashed. Farage suffered injuries that were described as non-life-threatening. A spokesperson told the BBC that "it was unlikely Mr Farage would be discharged from hospital today." Although his injuries were originally described as minor, his sternum and ribs were broken and his lung punctured. The Air Accident Investigation Branch (AAIB) report said that the aeroplane was towing a banner, which caught in the tailplane, forcing the nose down.
On 1 December 2010, Justin Adams, the pilot of the aircraft involved in the accident, was charged with threatening to kill Farage in a separate incident. He was also charged with threatening to kill an AAIB official involved in the investigation into the accident. In April 2011, Adams was found guilty of making death threats. The judge said that the defendant was "clearly extremely disturbed" at the time the offences happened adding "He is a man who does need help. If I can find a way of giving him help I will."
Alternative Vote referendum, May 2011:
Farage declared himself personally in favour of the Alternative Vote system of May 2011, saying first-past-the-post would be a "nightmare" for UKIP. The party's stance has to be decided by its central policy-making committee.
May 2012 London mayoral and local elections:
In a "bizarre cock-up", the UKIP forgot to put their party name on their candidate's ballot paper for the London mayoral election, 2012, Laurence Webb appearing as "A fresh choice for London." Farage admitted the mistake describing it as an internal error. Interviewed the following Sunday by Andrew Neil and asked about "the game plan", Farage welcomed the "average 13% vote" across the country, and stated that the party was preparing for County council elections in 2013, European elections in 2014 and a general election in 2015.
Asked what would happen to UKIP if the Tories made a manifesto commitment to a "European Referendum", Farage said they had already failed to honour a "cast iron" commitment for a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty. Challenging Farage's viewpoint, Neil conceded that UKIP aspired to come top of the European elections, but whilst UKIP wanted to join the big time they were still seen as "unprofessional, amateur and even unacceptable" after the Party's press officer called Baroness Warsi "a bitch". Farage regretted "the wrong choice of words" but further described Warsi as "the lowest grade Chairman the Tory Party has ever had." Neil proceeded to mock the so-called internal error which had made Farage "a joke". He was also voted politician of the year by MSN.
May 2013 local elections:
In May 2013 Farage led UKIP to its best-ever performance in a UK election. The party took 23% of the vote in the local elections, putting it only 2 points behind the governing Conservative party and 9 points ahead of the Liberal Democrats, and winning it 147 council seats. Farage was mobbed by well-wishers as he made his way to his favourite pub, the Marquis of Granby, for a celebratory drink. He called the victory "a real sea change in British politics". Subsequently, polling agency Survation found that 22% of voters intended to support UKIP in the 2015 General Election.
2015 UK General Election:
In October 2013, Farage announced that he would stand for election as an MP in 2015. Speaking on the BBC's Andrew Marr programme, he said that he would consider standing in Folkestone and Hythe or South Thanet, but had no specific preference for which seat he wished to contest, and preferred to focus on his current role as an MEP.
In 1999 the BBC spent four months filming a documentary about his European election campaign but did not show it. Farage, then head of the UKIP's South East office, asked for a video and had friends make illegal copies which were sold for £5 through the UKIP's magazine. Surrey Trading Standards investigated and Farage has admitted the offence.
In May 2009, The Guardian reported that Farage had said in a speech to the Foreign Press Association that over ten years as a Member of the European Parliament he received £2 million of taxpayers' money in staff, travel, and other expenses on top of his £64,000 a year salary. In response, Farage said that in future all UKIP MEPs would provide monthly expense details.
On 18 November 2004, Farage announced in the European Parliament that Jacques Barrot, the French Commissioner designate, had been barred from elected office in France for 2 years, after being convicted in 2000 of embezzling £2 million from government funds and diverting it into the coffers of his party. He claimed that French President Jacques Chirac had granted Barrot amnesty and initial BBC reports claimed that, under French Law, it was perhaps illegal to mention that conviction; the prohibition in question applies only to French officials in the course of their duties. The President of the Parliament, Josep Borrell, enjoined him to retract his comments under threat of "legal consequences". The following day it was confirmed that Barrot had received an 8-month suspended jail sentence in the case, and that this had been quickly expunged by the amnesty decided by Chirac and his parliamentary majority. The Socialist and Liberal groups in the European Parliament then joined forces with UKIP in demanding the resignation of Barrot for failing to disclose the conviction during his confirmation hearings.
José Manuel Barroso:
During the spring of 2005, Farage requested that the European Commission disclose where the individual Commissioners had spent their holidays. The Commission did not provide the information requested, on the basis that the Commissioners had a right of privacy. The German newspaper Die Welt reported that the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso had spent a week on the yacht of the Greek shipping billionaire Spiro Latsis. It emerged soon afterwards that this had occurred a month before the Commission under Barroso's predecessor Romano Prodi approved 10.3 million euro of Greek state aid for Latsis' shipping company. It also became known that Peter Mandelson, then a member of the Commission, had accepted a trip to Jamaica from an unrevealed source.
Farage persuaded around 75 MEPs from across the political divide to back a motion of no confidence in Barroso, which would be sufficient to compel Barroso to appear before the European Parliament to be questioned on the issue. The motion was successfully tabled on 12 May 2005, and Barroso appeared before Parliament at a debate on 26 May 2005. The motion was heavily defeated. A Conservative MEP, Roger Helmer, was expelled from his group, the European People's Party - European Democrats (EPP-ED), in the middle of the debate by that group's leader Hans-Gert Poettering as a result of his support for Farage's motion.
In January 2007, the French farmers' leader Joseph Daul was elected the new leader of the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED), the European Parliamentary grouping which then included the British Conservatives. The UK Independence Party almost immediately revealed that Daul had been under judicial investigation in France since 2004 as part of an inquiry into the alleged misuse of public funds worth €16 million (£10.6 million) by French farming unions." It was not suggested that Daul had personally benefited, but was accused of "complicity and concealment of the abuse of public funds." Daul accused Farage of publicising the investigation for political reasons and threatened to sue Farage, but did not do so though the court dropped all charges against him.
Prince Charles was invited to speak to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008; in his speech he called for EU leadership in the battle against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Farage was the only MEP to remain seated, and he went on to describe the Prince's advisers as "naïve and foolish at best." Farage continued: "How can somebody like Prince Charles be allowed to come to the European Parliament at this time to announce he thinks it should have more powers? It would have been better for the country he wants to rule one day if he had stayed home and tried to persuade Gordon Brown to give the people the promised referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon." The leader of the UK Labour Party's MEPs, Gary Titley, accused Farage of anti-Royalism. Titley said: "I was embarrassed and disgusted when the Leader of the UK Independence Party, Nigel Farage, remained firmly seated during the lengthy standing ovation Prince Charles received. I had not realised Mr Farage's blind adherence to right wing politics involved disloyalty and discourtesy to the Royal Family. He should be thoroughly ashamed of himself and should apologise to the British people he represents."
Herman Van Rompuy:
After the speech of Herman Van Rompuy on 24 February 2010 to the European Parliament, Farage - to protests from other MEPs - addressed the former Belgian Prime Minister and first long-term President of the European Council saying that he had the "charisma of a damp rag and the appearance of low grade bank clerk". Farage questioned the legitimacy of Van Rompuy's appointment, asking "Who are you? I'd never heard of you, nobody in Europe had ever heard of you". He also asserted that Van Rompuy's "intention is to be the quiet assassin of European democracy and of the European nation states." In the same speech he also referred to Belgium as "pretty much a non-country". Van Rompuy commented afterwards, "There was one contribution that I can only hold in contempt, but I'm not going to comment further." After refusing to apologise for behaviour that was, in the words of the President of the European Parliament, Jerzy Buzek, "inappropriate, unparliamentary and insulting to the dignity of the House", Farage was reprimanded and had his right to ten days' allowance (expenses) rescinded.
The President of the European Parliament, Jerzy Buzek, said after his meeting with Farage:
I defend absolutely Mr Farage's right to disagree about the policy or institutions of the Union, but not to personally insult our guests in the European Parliament or the country from which they may come. . . . I myself fought for free speech as the absolute cornerstone of a democratic society. But with freedom comes responsibility - in this case, to respect the dignity of others and of our institutions. I am disappointed by Mr Farage's behaviour, which sits ill with the great parliamentary tradition of his own country. I cannot accept this sort of behaviour in the European Parliament. I invited him to apologise, but he declined to do so. I have therefore - as an expression of the seriousness of the matter - rescinded his right to ten days' daily allowance as a Member.
Questioned by Camilla Long, Farage declared of his speech "it wasn't abusive, it was right."
Visit to Scotland:
In May 2013, Farage was interrupted by protesters during a press conference in the Canon's Gait pub on Edinburgh's Royal Mile. The demonstration was organised by the Radical Independence Campaign and saw protesters vocally accuse Farage of being "racist", "fascist", and a "homophobe", and tell him to "go back to London". Farage made attempts to leave by taxi but was prevented from doing so, and was eventually taken away in an armoured police van while protesters continued to shout. He was trying to raise the profile of UKIP in Scotland ahead of the Aberdeen Donside by-election; the party currently has no representation in the country, and took 0.91% of the vote in the previous election. During an interview with BBC's Good Morning Scotland radio show, Farage labelled the protesters "yobbo fascist scum" before hanging up, stating that the questions regarding the incident in Edinburgh were insulting and unpleasant.
Future televised debates:
Farage has threatened to take legal action if he is excluded from any televised party leaders' debates at the next general election.
Alleged racism at school:
At the time of the 2013 UKIP party conference, it emerged that a letter sent in June 1981 by an English teacher at Dulwich College to the headmaster objected to Farage being made a Prefect because he had "fascist" and "racist" opinions. The writer asserted that he had been part of a group of pupils who had shouted Hitler Youth songs while engaged on activities organised by the school in a Sussex village, although this claim is uncorroborated and disputed by another pupil who was present, as well as the headmaster of the school at the time. Farage said the claims were "complete baloney". He told Channel 4 News in September 2013: "I don't know any Hitler youth songs, in English or German".
Views on the euro:
From taking office as a UKIP MEP in 1999, Farage has often voiced opposition to the "euro project". His argument is that "a one-size-fits-all interest rate" cannot work for countries with structurally different economies, often using the example of Greece and Germany to emphasise contrast. He predicted the need for bailouts before European Commission and European Central Bank officials admitted that these steps would be necessary. Although Spain and Italy have both had indirect assistance from the ECB, whereby secondary government bonds are bought by the central bank, they are prohibited from purchasing new bonds. Farage warns: "You can ignore the markets if you want to, but in time the markets will not ignore you". Farage also reinforces Germany's argument that Italy "should never have joined the Euro".
Farage strongly opposes the use of bailouts and claims that "buying your own debt with tax payers money" will not solve the problem and that, "if we do, the next debt crisis won't be a country", "it will be the European Central Bank itself".
Nigel Farage has contested several elections under the United Kingdom Independence Party banner:
Itchen, Test and Avon, European Parliament Election 1994 - 12,423 votes, representing 5% of total votes cast,
Eastleigh by-election, 1994 - 952, 1.4%,
Salisbury, 1997 general election - 3,332, 6%,
European Parliament election, 1999 - elected member for South East England from party list,
Bexhill and Battle, 2001 general election - 3,474, 8%,
European Parliament election, 2004 - elected member for South East England from party list,
South Thanet, 2005 general election - 2,079, 5%,
Bromley and Chislehurst by-election, 2006 - 2,307, 8%,
European Parliament election, 2009 - elected member for South East England from party list.,
Buckingham, 2010 general election - 8,410, 17%,
Farage has been married twice. He married Gráinne Hayes in 1988, by whom he has two children: Samuel (born 1989) and Thomas (born 1991). The marriage was dissolved in 1997. In 1999 he married Kirsten Mehr, a German national, and they have two children, Victoria (born 2000) and Isabelle (born 2005). Farage has made reference to his German wife in response to criticisms that he is entirely anti-Europe, while he himself claims he is merely anti-EU.
Farage is a smoker. In his early 20s, Farage was diagnosed with testicular cancer but made a full recovery.
In 2010, Farage published a book of memoirs, entitled Fighting Bull (Flying Free in paperback), outlining the founding of UKIP and his personal and political life so far.
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Text from this biography licensed under creative commons license