History of Armenia
Stone & Copper Age
Areni-1 Cave Complex
Legend of Hayk
(?) 2492 BCE
Bronze & Iron Age
Kingdom of Van
Satrapy of Armina
Kingdom of Armenia
321 BCE-428 CE
189 BCE-12 CE
Roman Province of Armenia
Kingdom of Sophene
Kingdom of Commagene
163 BCE-72 CE
Battle of Avarayr
Emirate of Arminiya
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Kingdom of Siwnik
Kingdom of Lori
Kingdom of Artsakh
House of Hasan-Jalalyan
Battle of Manzikert
Cilician & Turco-Mongol Period
Principality of Khachen
Kingdom of Cilicia
Early Modern Age
Safavid & Qajar rule
Armenian National Movement
S.D. Hunchakian Party
Battle of Sardarapat
Battle of Karakilisa
First Armenian Republic
Treaty of Batum
War with Azerbaijan
War with Georgia
Treaty of Sèvres
War with Turkey
Treaty of Alexandropol
Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Treaty of Moscow
Treaty of Kars
The name Armenia enters English via Latin, from Ancient Greek Ἀρμενία. The Armenian endonym for the Armenian people and country is hayer and hayk', respectively. The exact etymology of the name is unknown, and there are various speculative attempts to connect it to older toponyms or ethnonyms.
2 Further speculations
2.1 From Armanî, Armânum, Ermenen, Urmenu or Minni,
2.2 From Hayasa-Azzi (native Armenian name Hayastan),
3 Armenian historiographic tradition,
4 Modern names,
6 External links,
The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu (in Babylonian) as Armina (in Old Persian) and Harminuya (in Elamite). In Greek, Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time, perhaps the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus (476 BC).Herodotus, in c.440 BC, said "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists" (7.73) (Ἀρμένιοι δὲ κατά περ Φρύγες ἐσεσάχατο, ἐόντες Φρυγῶν ἄποικοι.). Xenophon describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.
Although disputed and unproven, some speculations on the exact origin of the Armenia exonym have been proposed.
From Armanî, Armânum, Ermenen, Urmenu or Minni:
It has been suggested by early 20th century Armenologists that Old Persian Armina and the Greek Armenoi are continuations of an Assyrian toponym Armânum or Armanî. There are certain Bronze Age records identified with the toponym in both Mesopotamian and Egyptian sources. The earliest is from an inscription which mentions Armânum together with Ibla (Ebla) as territories conquered by Naram-Sin of Akkad in ca. 2250 BC identified with an Akkadian colony in the Diarbekr region.
Another mention by pharaoh Thutmose III of Egypt in the 33rd year of his reign (1446 BC) as the people of Ermenen, and says in their land "heaven rests upon its four pillars".
The name has also been claimed as a variant of Urmani (or Urmenu), attested epigraphically in an inscription of Menuas of Urartu.
However, many historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Armanî which was conquered by Naram-Sin of Akkad, with the Syrian city of Aleppo and not with the Armenian Highland.
Minni (מנּי) is also a Biblical name of the region, appearing in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 51:27) alongside Ararat and Ashchenaz, probably the same as the Minnai of Assyrian inscriptions, corresponding to the Mannai. Armenia is interpreted by some as Minni, that is, "the mountainous region of the Minni".
The name is connected to the Indo-European root Ar- meaning "assemble/create" which is vastly used in names of or regarding the Sun, light, or fire, found in Ararat, Aryan, Arta etc.
From Hayasa-Azzi (native Armenian name Hayastan):
There have been further speculations as to the existence of a Bronze Age tribe of the Armens (Armans, Armani; Armenian: Արմեններ Armenner, Առամեններ Aṙamenner), either identical to or forming a subset of the Hayasa-Azzi. In this case, Armenia would be an ethnonym rather than a toponym.
This section requires expansion. (October 2010)
Armenologist Nicholas Adontz has rejected some of these speculations in his 1946 book.
Armenian historiographic tradition:
Armenian tradition has an eponymous ancestor, Aram, a lineal descendent of Hayk (Հայկ), son of Harma and father of Ara the Beautiful (according to classical Armenian historian Moses of Chorene).Aram is sometimes equated with Arame of Urartu, the earliest known king of Urartu. The endonym Hayk' (from Classical Armenian) in the same tradition is traced to Hayk himself.
The names Armen and Arman, feminine Arminé, are common given names by Armenians. Armin is also a Persian given name.
Modern terms for Armenians and Armenia in Armenian and neighboring languages:
Հայաստան (Hayastan), Հայք (Hayk')